Sunday, May 24, 2020

The Movie Batman Directed By Christopher Nolan, James...

Anti-heroes are depicted as villains in fancy costumes, but I believe they are just heroes doing good behind the bad . I am hoping that I can prove through this report that Anti-heroes are more than just vigilantes, more than a villainous hero. That they re admirable people that just use unjustified methods to save those who need saving. I hope to do this by using the Anti-heroes in the films; Batman directed by Christopher Nolan, James Bond - Casino Royal directed by Martin Cambell, Iron Man directed by Jon Favreau, and Arrow directed and created by D.C. and C.W. The theme I chose is anti-heroes - doing good behind the bad , as I believe that it is important not to depict antiheroes as villains in fancy costumes, that just make†¦show more content†¦This shows me that Anti-heroes tend to put others before themselves. This is because while their label is Anti-hero , it s only a classification which leads you to believe one thing when you could be believing in their actions when you could be perceiving them as someone who is misread and misjudged. I think that they are portrayed and evil , because they know the hardships of loss, and want to prevent it from repeating to those around them. However, the way that these Anti-heroes and Bruce Wayne attempt to prevent this loss are questionable, I believe this is why people tend to second guess that Anti-heroes are real heroes. LINK BACK TO INTRO James Bond - Casino Royal directed by Martin Cambell, is a spy who was brought up as an orphan who doesn’t like to follow the rules or protocol. James gets himself and other into a lot of trouble, as he goes after lead which no one else has discovered yet. After James was promoted to the 007 role, ‘M’ his coordinator told him he was he was going to get himself killed with his recklessness. He replied back with â€Å"Well, I understand double – 0’s have a very short life – expectancy.† This quote shows that even though he knows that he won’t live long, he is still willing to do his job and make the world safer for those who live in it. This is shown in another conversation with ‘M’, where he said â€Å"you knew I wouldn’t let this drop, didn’t you?’ ‘Well, I knew you were you.† Another example is a

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

My Name is Seepeetza by Shirley Sterling Free Essay Example, 1750 words

Sterling provides various instances starting from the beginning of the story, which showcases how Seepeetza fights back throughout her stay at the residential school and overcomes the oppressive authoritarian system as well as the racist evils of the school. The primary theme of the novel is racism and how aboriginal children were treated at a time that believed in the superiority of the white race. Humans are all actually kindred spirits who live through the external bodies attributed to them by the Supreme Being. Thus, these spirits are supposed to recognize each other through their hearts and not through their eyes. However, during those time periods, it was the color of the person that determined how the society perceived him or her, and it is this perception that determined how the individual was to be treated. The saga of Seepeetza, presented in a diary form, with all its little diary entries shows exactly how even children were not exempted from the cruel constructs of the so ciety based upon race, and how they had to lead their lives under scrutiny and ridicule of the authorities in the residential schools. We will write a custom essay sample on My Name is Seepeetza by Shirley Sterling or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/page

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Trade Unions and the Industrial Revolution Free Essays

string(258) " entry and even when technological change took place, of preserving jobs for their members and although women were entering the labour market in increasing numbers, there was hostility to women penetrating new areas of work and unions were exclusively male\." Trade Unions had struggled to achieve the freedom to exist in the early stages of the industrial revolution. Provide a critical account of their early developments, noting some of the major changes in their formation and character. A trade union can be described as an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas and working conditions. We will write a custom essay sample on Trade Unions and the Industrial Revolution or any similar topic only for you Order Now They were established around the early eighteenth century and membership was low and most were from within crafting industries but as the success of trade unions became apparent, workers in other industries began to see the benefits of unions to allow them to go from strength to strength and establish themselves in a wider variety of sectors. However, up until the late eighteenth century trade unions were mainly illegal, â€Å"unions were forbidden by special statutes, and they could be proceeded against at common law, for ‘conspiracy in restraint of trade’. † (Derry and Jarman, XXXX, p. 41). Since then, memberships levels, mergers, formations, dissolutions and breakaways, have all had an impact resulting in changes in union formation and character, these can be seen largely through the parliamentary acts that have been passed in relation to it. By examining the various historic triumphs of workers over their employers such as the Match-girls and the London Docker s, it is possible to establish the changes in formation and character and how trade unions managed to pull through the industrial revolution to become such an influential part of society today. One of the first noteable changes was an increase in membership levels because as the employment sector grew with the industrial revolution, workers began to see the opportunities available to them, to improve the quality of their working life by joining trade unions and thus made the effort to form specialized organisations that would protect their interest against exploitive employers. However, in 1799 and 1800 William Pitt, the Prime Minister, passed Combination Laws which made it illegal for workers to join together to pressure their employers for shorter hours and more pay or prevent employers from choosing whom they wish to employ selectively. This made it increasingly difficult for trade unions to even form and as a result they were effectively made illegal. One could say that towards the end of the eighteenth century, tat the journeymen’s societies had developed into trade unions. The Combinations Acts were used infrequently and combinations continued to spread across a variety of occupations and the Acts were repealed in 1824, however, this was followed by an outbreak of strikes and as a result the 1825 Combination Act was passed which again imposed limitations on the right to strike. As a result of this, trade unions were forced to use debate and other more cerebal methods to achieve their goals rather than immediately resorting to violent strikes. Another noteable change in formation amongst trade unions became apparent in 1834 when there was an attempt to establish a Grand National Consolidated Trades’ Union bringing together all the unions but it never attracted general support. From 1830 onwards, attempts were made to set up national general unions to try and widen the movement and increase awareness and involvement, most notably Robert Owen’s Grand National Consolidated Trades Union (GNCTU) in 1834, which gained 250,000 members. Unfortunately it collapsed due to internal strife and lack of funds. Around the same time there was the case of the Tolpuddle Martyrs from one of the GNCTU’s sub divisions, the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers who were sentenced to seven years transportation but a campaign launched for their release had their sentence remitted in 1836. This was the first of its kind and now people were beginning to see a real change and workers interests were being represented more in society and now a large majority of employees belonged to trade unions. More permanent trade unions were established from the 1850s, based on â€Å"new aims and a better organization for the new Unions of better-paid workers. † (Derry and Jarman, XXXX, p. 146). In 1851 the Amalgamated Society of Engineers was formed after sever local and sectional engineering unions merged together (Blackboard, 2008). This society formed a new organisation of trade unionism which was followed by Carpenters and Joiners and other trade unions. These unions were â€Å"respected by employers because they hand money in the bank and prudence as their first principle†. They had a cautious industrial policy and used strikes as a last resort. (Derry and Jarman, XXXX, p. 146). The new Liberal government headed by William Gladstone saw The Trade Union Congress campaigning for the Minority Report, the campaign was successful and the 1871 Trade Union Act was based largely on the Minority Report. This act secured the legal status of trade unions. As a result of this legislation no trade union could be regarded as criminal because â€Å"in restraint of trade†; trade union funds were protected. Although trade unions were pleased with this act, they were less happy with the Criminal Law Amendment Act passed the same day that made picketing illegal. Trade unions also went through many amalgamations and legal changes, for example, until 1850, unions had been involved primarily in local affairs (with the exception of the miners) but from the middle of the century, the growth of railways meant that communications were easier and amalgamations began to take place. The engineering industry was in the lead and the Amalgamated Society of Engineers (ASE) was established in 1850. It modelled itself on the friendly society, providing unemployment, sickness and disablement benefits and a funeral allowance. Certain other merging unions – for example in woodworking and tailoring – followed the ASE’s model but others kept their friendly society and trade sections separate. And many local societies remained; even the national unions still gave much autonomy to branches and districts and there was a constant danger of breakaways. The model was still predominantly about the protection of craft status, with the aim of limiting entry and even when technological change took place, of preserving jobs for their members and although women were entering the labour market in increasing numbers, there was hostility to women penetrating new areas of work and unions were exclusively male. You read "Trade Unions and the Industrial Revolution" in category "Papers" Alongside the growth of national unions came the development of trades councils from around 1858 in major towns and cities. Bringing together unions locally, their aim was to co-ordinate support in disputes and to help create a climate of opinion more favourable to the unions. In 1868, the Manchester and Salford Trades Council called what is usually taken as the first meeting of what was to become the Trades Union Congress (TUC), an annual meeting to encourage collaboration between unions and put pressure on the government. By the 1870s, the TUC had a full-time general secretary and by 1895 representation at the TUC was restricted to unions, and trades councils were excluded altogether to avoid dual representation. The TUC’s Parliamentary Committee took a growing role in representing the union view to government. Industrial disputes continued, unsurprising at a time of rapid change when new working practices and technologies were being introduced. The major strikes were almost always about how work should be carried out and who could be employed on particular tasks; entry and preservation of craft status (which implied having served an apprenticeship) remained predominant aims. Most strikes began as unofficial affairs, later ratified by a sometimes reluctant national leadership; this feature was still evident a century later. But most union leaders had an interest in stability; apart from other considerations, strikes were a threat to their funds, and unions have never been well-funded. From the late eighteen hundreds, trade unions began to grow steadily, by the beginning of the 1880s, the number of trade unionists has been estimated at around three-quarters of a million, most in skilled trades although the majority of the workforce was unskilled. In the 1880s, led by seamen, dockers and gas workers who held notably successful strikes, serious organisation of the unskilled and semi-skilled began. Women too formed separate trade unions. The predominant ideology behind the craft unions had been Non-Conformism and self-help. During the period of the growth of new unions, socialism began to play a part and many young activists were inspired by it. But the climate tended towards the anarchic: these so-called ‘new unions’ competed with each other, often with intense inter-union rivalry. This was not confined to the new unions: new processes were blurring traditional patterns of working, and in engineering and shipbuilding there were demarcation disputes between the craft unions, refusals to support semi-skilled workmates in disputes, and even industrial action against them. There were growing demands for closed shops, in which only union members could be permitted to be employed, and blacklisting of employers not recognising unions increased. The result was a spate of legal actions in the 1890s, culminating in the Taff Vale Judgment of 1901 which held that trade unions could be held liable for wrongful acts committed by their officials. A further judgment, Quinn v Leathem, ruled that a strike could be regarded as a conspiracy to injure, and once again unions could be held liable for the damages. These judgments had the further effect of making the leadership of unions realise that a voice in Parliament was needed to protect their funds, and by 1904 over half the unions affiliated to the TUC were also affiliated to the Labour Representation Committee, the forerunner of the Labour Party. Legal developments aside, from the 1880s and up to the First World War, unions were increasingly recognised as having a legitimate place in society. Governments generally wanted social stability, which meant seeking to reinforce moderate union leaders against more militant elements. Many employers had concluded that seeking to exclude unions would be counter-productive, and employers’ associations like the Engineering Employers’ Federation developed to deal with unions and to provide assistance to their members in national and local bargaining. (Some employers, like those on the railways, did resist however and it is probably no coincidence that both the Taff Vale and Osborne Judgments involved railway companies. ) The terms â€Å"industrial relations† and â€Å"collective bargaining† entered the language, although it is difficult to say precisely when. Amalgamations of unions continued and membership grew rapidly: there were 4. 1 million trade unionists in 1914, as against 1. 5 million in 1894. By the 1860s the main industrial towns and cities of Britain were establishing many small Trade Councils. In 1886 trade unionists in Sheffield were accused of using arson and murder to intimidate non-unionists and this spurred the 34 leaders of these Councils to meet together in Manchester to consider forming a single large organisation that would provide a united voice in the defence of all Trade Unions and hence the Trade Union Congress (TUC) came to be. It was agreed an annual meeting would be held to discuss issues of importance to the labour movement. The legal status of trade unions in the United Kingdom was established by a Royal Commission in 1867, which agreed that the establishment of the organizations was to the advantage of both employers and employees. Unions were legalized in 1871. In 1871 Trade Unions were no longer considered to be unlawful and full legal protection was given to union funds and the year when the Criminal Law Amendment Act was passed which prohibited picketing and placed restrictions on the right to strike. Anybody who sought representation or felt they were subjected to poor working conditions, now knew where to go and who to go to. The Bryant May dispute was the first strike by unorganized workers to gain national publicity with 1400 women at Bryant and May going on strike, gaining support from many significant people in society. It was also successful as it helped inspire the formation of unions all over the country. However it is important not to over exaggerate the success of trade unions as by 1888 only 5% of the labour force were members of trade unions. Another turning point in history for trade unionism was the London Dockers Strike, where workers wanted better pay and shorter working hours and even gained financial support from trade unions in Australia which led them to a victory over their employers. Over the next few years a large number of unskilled workers joined trade unions. Between 1892 and 1899 membership of trade unions increased from 1,500,000 to over 2,000,000 as explained by McArthy (XXXX) Throughout the century, trade unionism went through many significant changes that widened its membership and allowed the movement to flourish. It is because of these changes and development within individual movements that more and more of society’s needs were being represented via trade unions. It was difficult though for unions to be largely representative at any one given point though due to big political movements that were also going on at the time and also because there still wasn’t quite the feeling of collectiveness amongst workers and unions weren’t largely representative of the majority of society until workers began to realise that grouping together against tyrannical employers could lead to change. For the most part, people have belonged to trade unions because they offer protection – in the early days to provide help in the absence of a welfare state, and then to counteract the greater economic strength of employers, to provide legal and other support to members who believe they suffer injustices, and to campaign for reform. They are products of their times, and like other institutions reflect the political and social atmosphere of their day, as well as their own histories. No doubt this will continue to be so in the future. How to cite Trade Unions and the Industrial Revolution, Papers

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Character Of Malvolio In Twelfth Night Essay Example For Students

Character Of Malvolio In Twelfth Night Essay In William Shakespeare’s Twelfth Night we encounter several interesting characters. The character I found to be most interesting and most different from the others was Malvolio. Malvolio is the servant of Olivia. Although he belongs to the servant class, he believes strongly that he is better than the individuals that he serves. Malvolio often takes it upon himself to try to discipline others when Olivia is not around. For example he even takes it upon himself to discipline Sir Toby, his social superior. Malvolio appears to be a dedicated worker. Most of the time Olivia seems to appreciate the solemn dignity with which he carries out his duties, however, the others find him arrogant and regard him as an enemy. Malvolio, like Rosalind in As You Like It is in disguise. He pretends to be a Puritan. He dresses in black and never laughs. Throughout the movie we never see a smile on his face. This however, is merely a disguise that he assumes, that allows him to criticize others. Un der his black garments, lies a heart filled with vanity. He often daydreams that Olivia will marry him and as a result he will become her equal. He imagines himself wearing fine clothes and jewelry. He would then have command of the household, and he would then be able to get revenge on those who haven’t treated him respectfully. I find it ironic that Malvolio is more successful at fooling himself than he is at deceiving others. The other members of the household see through Malvolio’s hypocritical nature. Even Olivia, who seems to value Malvolio as a servant, says he is â€Å"sick of self love†, Act 1, Scene I, line 92). Though others can see through him, Malvolio fools himself completely. Maria says, he believes that â€Å"all that look on him love him†(Act II, sc.iii, l.152). He is sure that some accident of luck has caused a man as fine as him to be born a servant rather than a master. He believes that fortune will eventually correct that mistake. Mal volios self deception makes him the perfect target for Maria and Sir Tobys joke. Marias letter is only able to convince him that Olivia loves him because thats what he wants to believe. When the letter tells him to act proud and haughty, it only gives him permission to show how he already feels. His own pride causes him to act as foolishly as he does. Malvolios real downfall however, is not caused by foolishness. Nearly everybody in this play is foolish at one time or another. Unlike the others, however, Malvolio simply cannot laugh at himself, cannot recognize his faults. Therefore, he has no part in the healing that occurs at the end of the play. While the others are all laughing at themselves and forgiving each other, Malvolio clings to his anger. When he makes his final exit, he vows to take revenge on everybody. In Conclusion, from viewing the play I had a better understanding of the plot. I did however notice when trying to follow the movie with the play itself, that it was a little off. They first scene in the play is not acted until ten minutes into the movie. In the beginning of the play I felt like I was watching a remake of Titanic because everyone was jumping into the water. I also noticed that while I understood the purpose of Viola’s disguise, she didn’t look too masculine to me. I thought the power struggle between Malvolio and Sir Toby was very entertaining. It was portrayed in a light, flimsy manner. Overall the film wasn’t too bad to watch and I thought Helene Bonham Carter was fabulous in her role as Olivia. Shakespeare Essays

Wednesday, April 1, 2020

Profit and Corporate Hurdle Rate free essay sample

Currently, Teletech Corp. is using a single corporate hurdle rate to evaluate its investment decisions in its products and systems segment as well as its telecommunications segment. We will write a custom essay sample on Profit and Corporate Hurdle Rate or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Using only one hurdle rate doesn’t take into account the risk that the company faces within each segment. Investors demand higher returns for riskier investments. Victor Yossarian is concerned about the low returns for the high risk in the products and systems segment, this is why he wants to abandon this segment. Using two hurdle rates adjusts for the risk in each industry allows the company to adequately value each segment. Our analysis will show that by using two hurdle rates it will lower the cost of equity and WACC for the less risky telecommunications segment, while raising the cost of equity and WACC for the more risky products and systems segment. Lastly, our calculation of the economic profitability for each industry using the segmented hurdle rates will show that Teletech may be overvaluing its products and systems segment while undervaluing its telecommunications segment. This implies that Teletech should reallocate its capital in order to increase economic profitability . Introduction We will conduct an industry comparison analysis to show how the the company’s cost of borrowing and beta compares to its competitors. Next, we will explain why it is more beneficial for the company to use segmented hurdles rates rather than the corporate hurdle rate currently being used. We will then calculate a new hurdle rate and the economic profit for each division. Then, we will explain how capital restructuring can increase our profits for each segment. Lastly, we will address the concerns with the company’s recent performance and the future direction of the company. Industry Comparable Analysis Prior to any action, we will examine Teletech Corp’s market debt to capital and market debt to equity in comparison with a few selected competitors. In Exhibit One, all three comparable companies have a beta lower than 1. 05, which allows them to raise capital at a lower the cost of equity. However, when you compare market debt to equity, it is lower than the industry average showing that more equity can be issued. They also have a market debt to capital of 22%, which is below the industry average as well. The mean for this section is 28. 10%, which gives us an idea of where the ratio should be in comparison with Teletechs’ top competitors. Based off industry average, Teletech can increase their margins by becoming more levered. Now we will compare the products and systems segment using the same base of measurement with more focus towards the beta. Displayed on Exhibit One, the mean of the three companies is 1. 30, which is a substantially higher beta than Teletech corporate beta of 1. It is likely that the company can choose to raise capital from the wrong source; which shows’ when you compare its’ corporate debt to equity of 29% to an industry average of 9. 2%. This leads to the assumption that the capital structure that management has in place is inadequate in terms of risk and reward. Due to several outliers in this segment, we believe the industry average should be a little higher. Our assumption is that the the market debt to equity for the new segmented PS should be somewhere in between. This is discussed in the capital restructuring section of this analysis, where we assume a 15% weight of debt to calculate the new WACC. Telecommunication Services In order to calculate the new hurdle rate for the telecommunications segment we first had to calculate the cost of equity using the capital asset pricing model. We used the corporate risk free rate and market risk premium and the average beta for the telecommunications segment to make this calculation. As demonstrated in Exhibit Two, the cost of equity is lower than the corporate rate. Next, we calculated the WACC using the new cost of equity and the average market value of debt in the telecommunications segment. Exhibit Two shows that the WACC is lowered when using the market value of debt and new cost of equity. This means that shareholders will require a lower return on their investments and will cost the company less while raising equity, and issuing debt at a lower rate than the 9. 3% corporate rate currently being used. The segmented hurdle rates allow for lower cost of debt than the corporate hurdle rate. Lastly, we calculated the economic profitability using both the corporate hurdle rate and the segmented hurdle rate. Using the corporate hurdle rate, we calculated an economic profit that was negative, which can be shown in Exhibit Three. However, when we use the segmented hurdle rate the economic profitability is positive, which is shown in Exhibit Three. This shows that we are undervaluing the telecommunications segment when we use the corporate hurdle rate. Products and System Segment Our next objective was to determine what was the weighted average cost of capital for the products and systems segment. First, we needed to calculate the cost of equity for this segment. The risk free rate and risk premium were given to us and we calculated the beta by taking industry averages in the telecommunication equipment industry and the computer and network equipment industry. In Exhibit Four, the calculation can be shown and the result is a cost of equity for this segment of 12. 1%. The next step was to determine the overall weighted average cost of capital for this segment. We were given the after-tax cost of debt, but we had to determine a suitable weight of debt for this segment. The weight of debt was determined by calculating the average market value of debt to capital in the telecommunications equipment industry and computer and network equipment industry. We determined a suitable weight of debt of 9. 2% and a weight of equity of 90. 8% based off the average market value of debt to capital for the telecommunication equipment firms and computer and network equipment firms. This segment is riskier than the telecommunication services segment, so less debt is issued in this segment. In Exhibit Four, the calculation for the WACC is shown resulting in 11. 4% cost of capital for this segment. We decided to determine what the economic profitability of this segment was using the new segmented WACC. First, we had to calculate the capital employed in order to correctly figure out the profitability. We were given the return on capital for the segment of 11% and the net operating profit after taxes of $480 million. We calculated the capital employed and by using the newly determined capital employed, we plugged the new hurdle of 11.  4% and the given return on capital into the economic profitability formula. Exhibit Five shows the calculations for both the capital employed and the new economic profitability using the new segmented hurdle rate resulting in an economic profitability of $-17. 41 million. We wanted to do a comparison analysis using the corporate hurdle rate and the segmented hurdle rates for each segment. We used the same capital employed that we calculate d above and just plugged in the corporate hurdle rate instead of the segmented hurdle rate. Exhibit Five shows the calculation using the corporate hurdle rate resulting in economic profitability of $78. 19 million. Capital Restructuring After calculating economic profitability for both the telecommunications services segment and products and systems segment using both the newly calculated segmented hurdle rates and also using the corporate hurdle rate, we decided to do a comparison. Exhibit Six shows the economic profitability for each segment. However, the products and systems segment is still underperforming and has negative economic profitability. The segmented hurdle rate shows that the capital structure of the firm does not properly allocate the optimal capital that could result in much larger economic profits than using a single corporate hurdle rate. The telecommunications services segment has strong performance and low risk, so we determined that we could issue more debt in this segment and decided a weight of debt of 40% was suitable based on performance and comparable firms. Exhibit Seven shows the new WACC with a 40% weight of debt and 60% weight of equity resulting in a lower WACC then using the 27. 1% industry average debt weight. The products and systems segment is struggling to make economic profit, but we believe that even with the riskier characteristics of this segment that slightly raising the weight of debt above the industry average was a suitable option. The average weight of debt for the industry was 9. 2%, but this resulted in negative economic profit. So, we decided to push the weight of debt to 15% in order to just make this segment profitable without creating major debt risk. We decided to issue more debt because Teletech is a more diversified company that allows the risk to be separate out between the two segments instead of just one industry. Exhibit Seven shows the calculation for the products and systems segment using the newly determined weight of debt of 15% and weight of equity of 85% resulting in a factorial decrease in the WACC to 10. 96%. Exhibit Eight shows the new comparison analysis using the new WACC from the capital restructuring and shows that both segments are profitable. Conclusion After determining separate WACCs, we calculated economic profit for each segment discovering that products and systems was underperforming. Using comparable firms, it was evident that there was an opportunity to issue further debt. With the new debt weight, products and systems segment became profitable without significantly impacting this segment’s debt risk. The new debt structure and positive economic profitability would provide increased value for shareholders including Victor Yossarian. We believe that products and systems segment improves the horizontal diversification of Teletech and allows the debt risk to be more separate out with more segments.

Saturday, March 7, 2020

A Short Guide to Capitalization

A Short Guide to Capitalization A capital letter is the form of an alphabetical letter (such as A, B, C) used to begin a  proper noun  or the first word in a sentence. A capital letter is an uppercase letter in contrast to lower case. Verb: capitalize. Also known as  majuscule, uppercase, upper-case, block letter, and caps. In classical Greek and Latin writing, only capital letters (also called majuscules) were used. Examples and Observations By the sixth and seventh centuries the various letter forms we now use had been invented . . .. From the ninth century on all writing in the Latin alphabet, in whatever style or hand, used capital and small-letter pairs as we do now.(Thomas A. Sebeok, Current Trends in Linguistics, 1974)A capital is always used for the first letter of a sentence. It is a universal rule. But the same cannot be said for the capitalization of names or proper nouns. Style varies wildly betweenand even withinpublications such as national newspapers and magazines. Apply commonsense rules. All names of people and placesPeter Cook, Paraguay, Piccadilly Circustake capitals. All titles of specific works of artCitizen Kane, the Mona Lisa, Beethovens Fifth Symphony, Anna Kareninatake a capital. Languages and nationalitiesEnglish, the Frenchtake capitals. Institutionsthe Houses of Parliament, the White House, the Anglican Churchtake capitals. Days, months and formally defined periods of historyMonday, February, t he Middle Agestake capitals. . . .Words deriving from proper names usually take a capitalas Christian from Christ and Marxist from Marx. But some such words, known as eponyms, have come into everyday use and no longer take a capital.(Ned Halley, Dictionary of Modern English Grammar. Wordsworth, 2005) She laid the folded newspaper on the counter between us, and my eye caught the words DISASTER, FAILURE and CRASH.(Eva Figes, Nellys Version. Secker Warburg, 1977) Trends in Capitalization I am a poet: I distrust anything that starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (Antjie Krog)Times have changed since the days of medieval manuscripts with elaborate hand-illuminated capital letters, or Victorian documents in which not just proper names, but virtually all nouns, were given initial caps (a Tradition valiantly maintained to this day by Estate Agents). A look through newspaper archives would show greater use of capitals the further back you went. The tendency towards lowercase, which in part reflects a less formal, less deferential society, has been accelerated by the internet: some web companies, and many email users, have dispensed with capitals altogether.(David Marsh and Amelia Hodsdon, Guardian Style, 3rd ed. Guardian Books, 2010)If in doubt use lower case unless it looks absurd.(The Economist Style Guide. Profile Books, 2005) The Lighter Side of Capital Letters He believed in a door. He must find that door. The door was the way to . . . to . . .The Door was The Way.Good.Capital letters were always the best way of dealing with things you didnt have a good answer to.(Douglas Adams, Dirk Gentlys Holistic Detective Agency. Pocket Books, 1987) Carol Fisher: This is Scott ffolliott. Newspaperman, same as you. London correspondent. Mr. Haverstock, Mr. ffolliott.Scott ffolliott: With a double f.Johnny Jones: How do you do?Scott ffolliott: How do you do?Johnny Jones: I dont get the double f.Scott ffolliott: Theyre at the beginning, old boy. Both small fs.Johnny Jones: They cant be at the beginning.Scott ffolliott: One of my ancestors had his head chopped off by Henry VIII, and his wife dropped the capital letter to commemorate the occasion. There it is.Johnny Jones: How do you say it, like a stutter?Scott ffolliott: No, just straight fuh.(Laraine Day, George Sanders, and Joel McCrea in Foreign Correspondent, 1940)

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Empirical research Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Empirical research - Essay Example The researcher should test these predictions using appropriate experiments. The results of these experiments will determine whether the conclusions of the empirical research are logically supported or not, depending on whether the theory that informed the hypothesis and predictions is supported by the results or not. In an empirical research, the conclusions are logical if the evidences that support them are logical and there are proper inferences and hypothesis (Goodwin, 2005). Conclusions that are not logically supported do not invalidate the entire study. It is imperative that a conclusion should be arrived at in a logical way, having followed a systematic approach to conduct research, for a study to be fully valid. However, this does not mean that an entire study will be invalid if the conclusions are not logically supported. There will be some confusion because the conclusions are not logically supported, but the study will still be valid to some extent because the research was based on observations and experiences. If these observations and experiences are not logically supported by the theory that informed the research, it does not mean that the entire research is invalid (Becker & Lazaric,